oxford english dictionary pdf

    english dictionary

  • Look up English words in several English dictionaries simultaneously.

    oxford

  • A type of lace-up shoe with a low heel
  • A heavy cotton cloth chiefly used to make shirts
  • a city in southern England to the northwest of London; site of Oxford University
  • a low shoe laced over the instep
  • a university town in northern Mississippi; home of William Faulkner

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oxford english dictionary pdf – The Compact

The Compact Edition of The Oxford English Dictionary, Complete Text Reproduced Micrographically (in slipcase with reading glass) (v. 1-20)
The Compact Edition of The Oxford English Dictionary, Complete Text Reproduced Micrographically (in slipcase with reading glass) (v. 1-20)
When the twenty-volume Oxford English Dictionary, Second Edition, appeared years ago, the public response was extraordinary. The AP and UPI announced publication over their newswires. Time and Newsweek ran full-page articles. The New Yorker published an extensive essay. Virtually every major paper in American and in Great Britain covered the event. And from every corner, the praise was lavish. Time called it “a scholarly Everest.” Newsweek, “a celebration of language.” And Herbert Mitgang, in The New York Times, called the new OED “the last word on words” and “the arbiter of the English language as it is read and spoken all over the world.”
Now comes the Compact Edition of OED II, which captures all the wealth of scholarship found in the original edition in just one volume. The Compact is not an abridgement, but a direct photoreduction of the entire 20-volume set, with nine pages of the original on every nine-by-twelve page of the Compact (a magnifying glass comes with it). As in the Second Edition, the Compact combines in one alphabetical sequence the sixteen volumes of the first OED and the four Supplements–plus an extra five thousand new words to bring this monumental dictionary completely up to date. And it is monumental, with definitions of 500,000 words, 290,000 main entries, 137,000 pronunciations, 249,300 etymologies, 577,000 cross-references, and over 2,412,000 illustrative quotations. But as large as it is, perhaps its most important feature is its historical focus. The OED records not only words and meanings currently in use but also those that have long been considered obsolete. Moreover, under each definition of a word is a chronologically arranged group of quotations that illustrate the word’s usage down through the years, beginning with its earliest known appearance. The result is a dictionary that offers unique insight into the way our language has, over the centuries, grown, changed, and been put to use.
More than 100 years in the making, The Oxford English Dictionary is now universally acknowledged as the world’s greatest dictionary–the supreme arbiter on the usage and meaning of English words, a fascinating guide to the history and evolution of the language, and one of the greatest works of scholarship ever produced. The Washington Post has written that “no one who reads or writes seriously can be without the OED.” Now with the Compact, the world’s greatest dictionary is within the reach of anyone who wants one.

Proper words in their proper places–and a good many improper ones, too! If the OED’s many obsolete definitions tend to be the most enjoyable–shuff is dialect for “shy,” dolt was once upon a time a verb as well, meaning “to befool”–everyday idiosyncrasies still abound. But, for instance, occupies nine columns of text, and who would wish a single line away? There’s also the sublime pleasure of trawling through the sea of relevant quotations. The OED’s initial team of “voluntary readers” was asked to cite as many phrases as possible for both archaic and ordinary terms. None seems to have found this remotely arduous, and we now reap the ubiquitous (“present or appearing everywhere; omnipresent”) rewards. This huge venture is a labor of lore, love, and good humor. One caveat: If you skip over the Historical Introduction, you’ll miss learning about the Unregistered Words Committee, and overlook the wry warning, “If there is any truth in the old Greek maxim that a large book is a great evil, English dictionaries have been steadily growing worse ever since their inception….”

Lomurin vi? unga

Lomurin vi? unga
She has two eggs, but seems only one chicken, last year she had two.

Red-throated Diver nesting in Porkeri Mountains

Adult in breeding plumage
Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves

Order: Gaviiformes

Family: Gaviidae

Genus: Gavia

Species: G. stellata

Binomial name
Gavia stellata
(Pontoppidan, 1763)
Synonyms
Colymbus stellatus Pontoppidan, 1763 Colymbus lumme Brunnich, 1764
Colymbus septentrionalis Linnaeus, 1766
Gavia lumme Forster, 1788
Colymbus mulleri Brehm, 1826
Urinator lumme Stejneger, 1882

The Red-throated Diver (Gavia stellata), known in North America as the Red-throated Loon, is a migratory aquatic bird that is found in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. It is the smallest and most widely distributed member of the loon or diver family.

Around 55–67 centimetres (22–26 in) in length, the Red-throated Diver is a nondescript bird in winter, greyish above fading to white below. During the breeding season, it acquires the distinctive reddish throat which gives rise to its common name. Fish form the bulk of the diet, with invertebrates and plants sometimes eaten as well. A monogamous species, the Red-throated Diver forms long-term pair bonds.

Contents [hide]
1 Taxonomy and etymology
2 Description
2.1 Voice
3 Habitat and distribution
4 Behaviour
4.1 Food and feeding
4.2 Breeding
5 Conservation status and threats
6 In human culture
7 References
7.1 Sources
8 External links

[edit] Taxonomy and etymology
First described by Danish naturalist Erik Pontoppidan in 1763, the Red-throated Diver is a monotypic species, with no distinctive subspecies despite its large Holarctic range.[2] Pontoppidan initially placed the species in the now-defunct genus Colymbus, which contained grebes as well as divers. By 1788, however, German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster realized that grebes and divers were different enough to warrant separate genera, and moved the Red-throated Diver (along with all other diver species) to its present genus.[3] Its relationship to the four other divers is complex; though all belong to the same genus, it differs more than any of the others in terms of morphology, behaviour, ecology and breeding biology. It is thought to have evolved in the Palearctic, and then to have expanded into the Nearctic.[2]

The genus name Gavia comes from the Latin for "sea mew", as used by ancient Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder.[4] The specific epithet stellata is Latin for "set with stars" or "starry",[5] and refers to the bird’s speckled back in its non-breeding plumage.[4] "Diver" refers to the family’s underwater method of hunting for prey, while "red-throated" is a straightforward reference to the bird’s most distinctive breeding plumage feature. The word "loon" is thought to have derived from the Swedish lom, the Old Norse or Icelandic lomr, or the Old Dutch loen, all of which mean "lame" or "clumsy", and is a probable reference to the difficulty that all divers have in moving about on land.[6]

[edit] Description
The Red-throated Diver is the smallest and lightest of the world’s diver species, ranging from 55–67 centimetres (22–26 in) in length with a 91–110 centimetres (36–43 in) wingspan,[7] and averaging 1.4 kilograms (3.1 lb) in weight.[8] Like all divers, it is long-bodied and short-necked, with its legs set far back on its body.[9] The sexes are similar, although males tend to be slightly larger and heavier than females.[2] In breeding plumage, the adult has a grey head and neck (with narrow black and white stripes on the back of the neck), a triangular red throat patch, white underparts and a dark mantle. It is the only diver with an all-dark back in breeding plumage. The non-breeding plumage is drabber with the chin, foreneck and much of the face white, and considerable white speckling on the dark mantle. Its bill is thin, straight and sharp, and the bird often holds it at an uptilted angle. Though the colour of the bill changes from black in summer to pale grey in winter, the timing of the colour change does not necessarily correspond to that of the bird’s overall plumage change. The nostrils are narrow slits located near the base of the bill, and the iris is reddish.

An adult in non-breeding plumage shows the speckled back which gives the bird its specific name.When it first emerges from its egg, the young Red-throated Diver is covered with fine soft down feathers. Primarily dark brown to dark grey above, it is slightly paler on the sides of its head and neck, as well as on its throat, chest, and flanks, with a pale grey lower breast and belly. Within weeks, this first down is replaced by a second, paler set of down feathers, which are in turn replaced by developing juvenile feathers.[10]

In flight, the Red-throated Diver has a distinctive profile; its small feet do not project far

Newborn redthroated diver chick

Newborn redthroated diver chick
Red-throated Diver chick in Porkeri Mountains

Adult in breeding plumage
Conservation status

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves

Order: Gaviiformes

Family: Gaviidae

Genus: Gavia

Species: G. stellata

Binomial name
Gavia stellata
(Pontoppidan, 1763)
Synonyms
Colymbus stellatus Pontoppidan, 1763 Colymbus lumme Brunnich, 1764
Colymbus septentrionalis Linnaeus, 1766
Gavia lumme Forster, 1788
Colymbus mulleri Brehm, 1826
Urinator lumme Stejneger, 1882

The Red-throated Diver (Gavia stellata), known in North America as the Red-throated Loon, is a migratory aquatic bird that is found in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. It is the smallest and most widely distributed member of the loon or diver family.

Around 55–67 centimetres (22–26 in) in length, the Red-throated Diver is a nondescript bird in winter, greyish above fading to white below. During the breeding season, it acquires the distinctive reddish throat which gives rise to its common name. Fish form the bulk of the diet, with invertebrates and plants sometimes eaten as well. A monogamous species, the Red-throated Diver forms long-term pair bonds.

Contents [hide]
1 Taxonomy and etymology
2 Description
2.1 Voice
3 Habitat and distribution
4 Behaviour
4.1 Food and feeding
4.2 Breeding
5 Conservation status and threats
6 In human culture
7 References
7.1 Sources
8 External links

[edit] Taxonomy and etymology
First described by Danish naturalist Erik Pontoppidan in 1763, the Red-throated Diver is a monotypic species, with no distinctive subspecies despite its large Holarctic range.[2] Pontoppidan initially placed the species in the now-defunct genus Colymbus, which contained grebes as well as divers. By 1788, however, German naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster realized that grebes and divers were different enough to warrant separate genera, and moved the Red-throated Diver (along with all other diver species) to its present genus.[3] Its relationship to the four other divers is complex; though all belong to the same genus, it differs more than any of the others in terms of morphology, behaviour, ecology and breeding biology. It is thought to have evolved in the Palearctic, and then to have expanded into the Nearctic.[2]

The genus name Gavia comes from the Latin for "sea mew", as used by ancient Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder.[4] The specific epithet stellata is Latin for "set with stars" or "starry",[5] and refers to the bird’s speckled back in its non-breeding plumage.[4] "Diver" refers to the family’s underwater method of hunting for prey, while "red-throated" is a straightforward reference to the bird’s most distinctive breeding plumage feature. The word "loon" is thought to have derived from the Swedish lom, the Old Norse or Icelandic lomr, or the Old Dutch loen, all of which mean "lame" or "clumsy", and is a probable reference to the difficulty that all divers have in moving about on land.[6]

[edit] Description
The Red-throated Diver is the smallest and lightest of the world’s diver species, ranging from 55–67 centimetres (22–26 in) in length with a 91–110 centimetres (36–43 in) wingspan,[7] and averaging 1.4 kilograms (3.1 lb) in weight.[8] Like all divers, it is long-bodied and short-necked, with its legs set far back on its body.[9] The sexes are similar, although males tend to be slightly larger and heavier than females.[2] In breeding plumage, the adult has a grey head and neck (with narrow black and white stripes on the back of the neck), a triangular red throat patch, white underparts and a dark mantle. It is the only diver with an all-dark back in breeding plumage. The non-breeding plumage is drabber with the chin, foreneck and much of the face white, and considerable white speckling on the dark mantle. Its bill is thin, straight and sharp, and the bird often holds it at an uptilted angle. Though the colour of the bill changes from black in summer to pale grey in winter, the timing of the colour change does not necessarily correspond to that of the bird’s overall plumage change. The nostrils are narrow slits located near the base of the bill, and the iris is reddish.

An adult in non-breeding plumage shows the speckled back which gives the bird its specific name.When it first emerges from its egg, the young Red-throated Diver is covered with fine soft down feathers. Primarily dark brown to dark grey above, it is slightly paler on the sides of its head and neck, as well as on its throat, chest, and flanks, with a pale grey lower breast and belly. Within weeks, this first down is replaced by a second, paler set of down feathers, which are in turn replaced by developing juvenile feathers.[10]

In flight, the Red-throated Diver has a distinctive profile; its small feet do not project far past the end of its body, its head and neck droop below the horizontal (giving the